pramANas or proofs that are accepted in Purva Mimamsa also stand valid in Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta. These are fundamentally three (pratyaksha/ perception, anumAna/ inference & shabda/ Vedic testimony) as described by Jaimini, but were added to by Prabhakara (upmAna/ comparison & arthapatti/ implication) and Kumarila Bhatta (anupalabdhi/ non-apprehension). However, aitihya/ rumor & smr^ti/ recollection are not pramANa-s at all.

This pramANa includes everything that is perceived by the senses by direct contact. Common perception in day-to-day transactional world are a part of this pramANa. That fire is hot, red in color, etc, are examples of pratyaksha pramANa.

Whatever is inferred from two things perceived (ie. via pratyaksha pramANas), that have a fixed, permanent relation between them, form this category. Its further subdivided based on the relation between the two; viz. pratyaksha-dr^STa & sAmAnya-dr^STa. In the former division, the relation is quite a straightforward conclusion, such as that between fire and smoke, as seen in the kitchen fire, holds good for a mountain/ forest fire as well, when smoke is seen. The latter division calls for an abstract relation such as that of sun's motion and sun's changing positions in the sky, nonetheless valid.

The entire shrutI falls under this category, where the domain is quite different and totally imperceptible and not derivable either, owing to various limitations of time and space. eg. swargaprApti from performing the agniSToma. The Vedas are considered as apaurusheya, meaning that they are not a creation of the Purusha/ God. This is same as saying that the Vedas were created together with the God or preceded the creator! These are divided further into five categories as: vidhI/ injunctions, mantra/ hymns, namadheya/ names, nishedha/ prohibitions & arthavAda/ explanations. Also included under this category are trustworthy authors of the shAstras.

All valid knowledge can be derived only through the lens of these pramANas. Anything beside these are indeed a source for faulty understanding, confusion or partial knowledge.

om tat sat

Supreme bhakti

If we recollect our happy childhood, more than anything else, we can look back on those fond memories of parents and grandparents loving us. Those special moments that tell each of us a different, yet a similar story, of our grand/parents parting with us whatever they valued most. Such stories of sacrifice for their beloved children... anything for them. As we grow up, we grow attached to things and other people. Marriage brings forth another great binding factor; but that, in turn, reduces the strength of the umbilical cord tied to parents. Offsprings reduce the attachment towards the spouse too, increasing the love towards children and vice-versa. Beyond this interesting story, we fail to look and thats where the fundamental problem lies.

The way a person looks at a mirror and appreciates, rather loves, his own self, so too parents procreate themselves unto children to love and be loved. Even so, the Supreme Self creates Itself around oneself to love its own Self! That is the original love or bhakti that we forget and owe, beyond those towards our children, beyond our spouse and beyond our parents. Abandoning children, spouse or parents is considered irresponsible and sinful, socially, morally and religiously, but whosoever even bothers of complete abandonment of one's own Creator? From such a crime, is there a way out? Then how can anyone term any act of abandonment as a sin, which is merely leaving behind all those came later: kids, spouse, parents (saMnyAsa) and submitting oneself unto one's own creator and creation? Even remembering Him within and without, such supreme bhakti is Atma bhakti and nothing other than that!