pramANas or proofs that are accepted in Purva Mimamsa also stand valid in Uttara Mimamsa or Vedanta. These are fundamentally three (pratyaksha/ perception, anumAna/ inference & shabda/ Vedic testimony) as described by Jaimini, but were added to by Prabhakara (upmAna/ comparison & arthapatti/ implication) and Kumarila Bhatta (anupalabdhi/ non-apprehension). However, aitihya/ rumor & smr^ti/ recollection are not pramANa-s at all.

This pramANa includes everything that is perceived by the senses by direct contact. Common perception in day-to-day transactional world are a part of this pramANa. That fire is hot, red in color, etc, are examples of pratyaksha pramANa.

Whatever is inferred from two things perceived (ie. via pratyaksha pramANas), that have a fixed, permanent relation between them, form this category. Its further subdivided based on the relation between the two; viz. pratyaksha-dr^STa & sAmAnya-dr^STa. In the former division, the relation is quite a straightforward conclusion, such as that between fire and smoke, as seen in the kitchen fire, holds good for a mountain/ forest fire as well, when smoke is seen. The latter division calls for an abstract relation such as that of sun's motion and sun's changing positions in the sky, nonetheless valid.

The entire shrutI falls under this category, where the domain is quite different and totally imperceptible and not derivable either, owing to various limitations of time and space. eg. swargaprApti from performing the agniSToma. The Vedas are considered as apaurusheya, meaning that they are not a creation of the Purusha/ God. This is same as saying that the Vedas were created together with the God or preceded the creator! These are divided further into five categories as: vidhI/ injunctions, mantra/ hymns, namadheya/ names, nishedha/ prohibitions & arthavAda/ explanations. Also included under this category are trustworthy authors of the shAstras.

All valid knowledge can be derived only through the lens of these pramANas. Anything beside these are indeed a source for faulty understanding, confusion or partial knowledge.

om tat sat
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